The two main photoreceptors that are located in the human eye are the rods, responsible for the detection of light and cones, responsible for the ability to see colour. The rods are uniformally distributed across the retina of the eye, located at the back of the eye. The uniform distribution of the rods allows for any incoming light from the environment to pass through the eye and hit any point on the retina and then detected. The cones are densely packed into an area in the retina known as the fovea. The increased number of cone cells in this region allows for the increased visual acuity in humans.
Clearly in this question you need to apply some common sense and have a much deeper conceptual understanding of these photoreceptors. Knowing what the dotpoints are is only half the story. I can tell from your competitiveness that you are looking at going to university. Being able to apply what you know to a situation that you may not have encountered is something that you are going to have to get use to. Exams in uni (and the problems life throws at you) are rarely about being able to apply some set recipe to solve the question(s) at hand.
The second question is also about being able to apply some common sense and again requires some deeper conceptual understanding. I can't see the picture on the exam paper but my feeling would be that the marking scheme would be something like:
*Identify that neurones may be damaged in the brain.
*Relate to observation/injury sustained
*Identify area in brain which has been damaged.
*Relate to observation/injury sustained.
EDIT: I've realised that my response doesn't really answer the question, mostly because I've sort of incorporated the dotpoint that it's associated with and I can't see the graphic that is on the actual exam. The comments still holds though.