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Outline, using a simple model, the process by which DNA controls the production of pp (1 Viewer)

youix

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Alright, so I'm basically trying to finish all the content of BOL. I'm up to this dotpoint. I'm just memorising Ahmad Shah Idil's notes and was wondering.. Are they extensive enough for a band 6? Or possible a band 5? Reason because they're really easy to memorise and have cut down on a lot of information which is good for me as the notes our teacher gave us is like a page or two for each dotpoint. I just have a question about the dotpoint above. What exactly do we need to know? This is the information included in Ahmad's notes for the dotpoint:

DNA holds the information for creating proteins in cells
– As we know, a protein is made up of one or more chains of polypeptides, and
each polypeptide is made up amino acids and peptide bonds
– The way DNA codes for proteins:
 A set of 3 bases is called a triplet code, or a codon.
 Every codon codes for one amino acid
 There are 20 different amino acids
 However, with sets of 3 bases, and 4 different bases, there are 64
combinations possible
 This means that for one amino acid, there can be more than one triplet code.
 For example, TCT, TCC, TCA or TCG on the DNA strand in the nucleus
codes for the amino acid “serine”
– The structures involved in polypeptide synthesis are:
 DNA: A gene contains a sequence of bases to code for a protein
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
Copyright © 2006; Ahmad Shah Idil
 RNA: RNA is similar to DNA except that instead of deoxyribose as the sugar,
it has ribose. It is single stranded, and instead of thymine, there is uracil.
There are 3 forms involved in polypeptide synthesis:
 mRNA: Messenger RNA carries the genetic code outside the nucleus, into
the cytoplasm, where it can be read by ribosomes
 tRNA: Transfer RNA carries the amino acids to the ribosomes to link and
form a polypeptide chain. tRNA are shaped like clover leaves; there is a
different type for every amino acid. At the bottom of every tRNA
molecule is an anti-codon that binds to the codon on the mRNA strand.
That is how the amino acid is linked to the codon.
 Ribosomal RNA: Ribosomes are made up of protein and RNA
 Ribosomes: The ribosome is the active site for protein synthesis. It is made up
of protein and RNA molecules. It can accommodate 2 tRNA at a time.
 Enzymes: The enzyme that controls the formation of mRNA is RNA
polymerase. There are, of course, many other enzymes that control the process.
– STAGE ONE - Transcription:
 A double stranded DNA molecule in the nucleus unwinds a section of itself
that consists of a single gene.
 One of the strands coding for the gene exposes itself to the nucleoplasm
 The enzyme, RNA polymerase moves along the strand, attaching loose RNA
nucleotides to the DNA, with A-U and C-G, until the whole gene is copied.
 This new RNA strand is called messenger RNA (mRNA)
 A start codon, and a stop codon determine the length of the gene
 The mRNA strand exits the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm
– STAGE TWO - Translation:
 The mRNA strand binds to a ribosome in the cytoplasm, with the start codon
being AUG (always). However, AUG also codes for the amino acids
methionine. This amino acid is usually removed later
 The ribosome moves along the mRNA strand, to „read‟ more of its bases.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
Copyright © 2006; Ahmad Shah Idil
 tRNA molecules floating in the cytoplasm, which have anti-codons
complementary to the codons of the mRNA enter the ribosome. Eg, if the
mRNA had an AAG codon, the UUC tRNA would bind to it
 As the tRNA releases its amino acid to attach to the ribosome, it leaves, to
find another amino acid. The ribosome can only accommodate 2 tRNA.
 The ribosome moves along the mRNA, and more and more amino acids are
attached, with peptide bonds, to the growing polypeptide chain.
 When a „stop‟ codon is reached, the polypeptide chain is released into the
cytoplasm, for further processing, to become a protein

I'm really trying to cut down on information as much as possible so I was wondering if I could just memorise the steps of transcription and translation because that's what they normally ask. Would that be enough for the dotpoint?
 

Mr_Kap

Well-Known Member
Joined
Mar 24, 2015
Messages
1,131
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Male
HSC
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Re: Outline, using a simple model, the process by which DNA controls the production o

Alright, so I'm basically trying to finish all the content of BOL. I'm up to this dotpoint. I'm just memorising Ahmad Shah Idil's notes and was wondering.. Are they extensive enough for a band 6? Or possible a band 5? Reason because they're really easy to memorise and have cut down on a lot of information which is good for me as the notes our teacher gave us is like a page or two for each dotpoint. I just have a question about the dotpoint above. What exactly do we need to know? This is the information included in Ahmad's notes for the dotpoint:

DNA holds the information for creating proteins in cells
– As we know, a protein is made up of one or more chains of polypeptides, and
each polypeptide is made up amino acids and peptide bonds
– The way DNA codes for proteins:
 A set of 3 bases is called a triplet code, or a codon.
 Every codon codes for one amino acid
 There are 20 different amino acids
 However, with sets of 3 bases, and 4 different bases, there are 64
combinations possible
 This means that for one amino acid, there can be more than one triplet code.
 For example, TCT, TCC, TCA or TCG on the DNA strand in the nucleus
codes for the amino acid “serine”
– The structures involved in polypeptide synthesis are:
 DNA: A gene contains a sequence of bases to code for a protein
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
Copyright © 2006; Ahmad Shah Idil
 RNA: RNA is similar to DNA except that instead of deoxyribose as the sugar,
it has ribose. It is single stranded, and instead of thymine, there is uracil.
There are 3 forms involved in polypeptide synthesis:
 mRNA: Messenger RNA carries the genetic code outside the nucleus, into
the cytoplasm, where it can be read by ribosomes
 tRNA: Transfer RNA carries the amino acids to the ribosomes to link and
form a polypeptide chain. tRNA are shaped like clover leaves; there is a
different type for every amino acid. At the bottom of every tRNA
molecule is an anti-codon that binds to the codon on the mRNA strand.
That is how the amino acid is linked to the codon.
 Ribosomal RNA: Ribosomes are made up of protein and RNA
 Ribosomes: The ribosome is the active site for protein synthesis. It is made up
of protein and RNA molecules. It can accommodate 2 tRNA at a time.
 Enzymes: The enzyme that controls the formation of mRNA is RNA
polymerase. There are, of course, many other enzymes that control the process.
– STAGE ONE - Transcription:
 A double stranded DNA molecule in the nucleus unwinds a section of itself
that consists of a single gene.
 One of the strands coding for the gene exposes itself to the nucleoplasm
 The enzyme, RNA polymerase moves along the strand, attaching loose RNA
nucleotides to the DNA, with A-U and C-G, until the whole gene is copied.
 This new RNA strand is called messenger RNA (mRNA)
 A start codon, and a stop codon determine the length of the gene
 The mRNA strand exits the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm
– STAGE TWO - Translation:
 The mRNA strand binds to a ribosome in the cytoplasm, with the start codon
being AUG (always). However, AUG also codes for the amino acids
methionine. This amino acid is usually removed later
 The ribosome moves along the mRNA strand, to „read‟ more of its bases.
HSC - Stage 6 2 Unit Biology
Copyright © 2006; Ahmad Shah Idil
 tRNA molecules floating in the cytoplasm, which have anti-codons
complementary to the codons of the mRNA enter the ribosome. Eg, if the
mRNA had an AAG codon, the UUC tRNA would bind to it
 As the tRNA releases its amino acid to attach to the ribosome, it leaves, to
find another amino acid. The ribosome can only accommodate 2 tRNA.
 The ribosome moves along the mRNA, and more and more amino acids are
attached, with peptide bonds, to the growing polypeptide chain.
 When a „stop‟ codon is reached, the polypeptide chain is released into the
cytoplasm, for further processing, to become a protein

I'm really trying to cut down on information as much as possible so I was wondering if I could just memorise the steps of transcription and translation because that's what they normally ask. Would that be enough for the dotpoint?
yes
 

youix

Member
Joined
Sep 29, 2015
Messages
43
Gender
Male
HSC
2015
Re: Outline, using a simple model, the process by which DNA controls the production o

So they're good enough for a band six?

By the way, for the specific dotpoint, do I have to know All the information before the Transcription or Translation part? for e.g.
DNA holds the information for creating proteins in cells
– As we know, a protein is made up of one or more chains of polypeptides, and
each polypeptide is made up amino acids and peptide bonds
– The way DNA codes for proteins:
 A set of 3 bases is called a triplet code, or a codon.
 Every codon codes for one amino acid
 There are 20 different amino acids
 However, with sets of 3 bases, and 4 different bases, there are 64
combinations possible
 This means that for one amino acid, there can be more than one triplet code.
 For example, TCT, TCC, TCA or TCG on the DNA strand in the nucleus
codes for the amino acid “serine”
– The structures involved in polypeptide synthesis are:
 DNA: A gene contains a sequence of bases to code for a protein

OR CAN I JUST MEMORISE TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION?
 

Mr_Kap

Well-Known Member
Joined
Mar 24, 2015
Messages
1,131
Gender
Male
HSC
2015
Re: Outline, using a simple model, the process by which DNA controls the production o

So they're good enough for a band six?

By the way, for the specific dotpoint, do I have to know All the information before the Transcription or Translation part? for e.g.
DNA holds the information for creating proteins in cells
– As we know, a protein is made up of one or more chains of polypeptides, and
each polypeptide is made up amino acids and peptide bonds
– The way DNA codes for proteins:
 A set of 3 bases is called a triplet code, or a codon.
 Every codon codes for one amino acid
 There are 20 different amino acids
 However, with sets of 3 bases, and 4 different bases, there are 64
combinations possible
 This means that for one amino acid, there can be more than one triplet code.
 For example, TCT, TCC, TCA or TCG on the DNA strand in the nucleus
codes for the amino acid “serine”
– The structures involved in polypeptide synthesis are:
 DNA: A gene contains a sequence of bases to code for a protein

OR CAN I JUST MEMORISE TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION?
The stuff before is pre-knowledge, and its good to know.

However, with sets of 3 bases, and 4 different bases, there are 64
combinations possible
 This means that for one amino acid, there can be more than one triplet code.
 For example, TCT, TCC, TCA or TCG on the DNA strand in the nucleus
codes for the amino acid “serine”


Don't worry about this part, you should know the rest though.
 

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