Types of Training

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Types of Training

Aerobic Training

  • Training that improves the efficiency of the aerobic energy producing system and can improve cardio-respiratory endurance.
  • Heart rate ^ in target zone for at least 20 minutes

Different types of training includes:

  • Endurance training: continuous training over a long distance
  • Continuous training: 20 mins in zone 70-85%, combinations of duration and intensity (long/low and short/high)
  • Interval training: exercise with recovery periods in between
    • Eg: sprint 200m (30 secs) and rest 2 minutes
    • Mimics competition
    • Allows high intensity over a longer time period
  • For aerobic improvement: a work: rest ratio of 1:1 or 1:2
  • Circuit training: exercises moving from station to station
    • Can be anaerobic/aerobic and can be weights, general fitness or skill specific
    • Fixed load (the same for everyone) or individual load (individual works at their maximum)
    • Can modify: the stations, the time at each, repetitions and circuits
    • Works best for muscular endurance, strength and flexibility
  • Fartlek training: Swedish for ‘speed play’
    • Using different energy systems with an aerobic focus through continuous work with bursts of speed
    • Eg: jogging with 10-15 second sprints every 2-5 minutes
    • Helps the ability to change systems
  • Aerobics: exercise performed to music
    • Variations: eg slow music at the start to warm up
    • Eg: boxercise, jazzercise

Strength Training

(also called resistance training)
  • Aims: (muscle) strength, power, endurance, tone
  • Strength: the capacity of the body to exert force though muscle power
  • Absolute strength: maximum force generated by one contraction
  • Relative strength: force generated by a muscle taking into account body weight
  • Strength endurance: ability to repeat muscle contractions against a resistance
  • Speed strength (power): the muscle produces force quickly
  • Repetition: one performance of an exercise
  • Set: number of repetitions without rests
  • Repetition maximum: max number of time you can lift something before fatiguing
  • Hypertrophy: muscle fibres increase in size
  • Muscular bulk: increase in muscle tissue causing an increase in muscle size
  • Aerobic conditioning: capacity of the heart/lungs to pump blood to the muscles
  • Resistance can be: body weight, barbells, machine systems

Types of Strength Training:

  • Isometric (Latin: ‘constant length’)
    • A static contraction, muscle length does not change, little joint movement
    • Eg PNF stretching, pushing against a wall
    • Good for sports where a position has to be held (eg downhill skiing)
  • Isotonic
    • A constant load is taken through a range of movement
    • Concentric: muscle shortens
    • Eccentric: muscle lengthens
  • Isokinetic
    • Machines used to gain constant speed against a resistance
    • For rehab and max speed/power events

Flexibility Training

  • Definition: ability of joints to bend/stretch/twist through a range of movement without injury
  • Aims:
    • Preventing muscle injury/soreness
    • Improving body’s mechanical efficiency
    • Improving muscle coordination
  • Is affected by age, gender, exercise, temperature, specificity

Types of Stretching:

  • Static (passive) stretching
    • The muscle is stretched slowly and held for 10-30 seconds (without pain/discomfort)
    • Is safe (and used in rehab)
    • Increases blood flow and muscle temperature
    • Overcomes the stretch reflex mechanism (an involuntary action that protect from overstretching)
  • Ballistic (dynamic) stretching
    • Requires extra stretching/repetitive movements eg bouncing/swinging
    • Not for the untrained, can cause tears - performed after static and PNF stretches
  • Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
    • Definition: involves a static stretch + isometric contraction + relaxation
    • Strengthens the muscle fibres
    • A person/immovable object provides the resistance for an isometric contraction

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