Supplementation

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Supplementation

  • Can be legal and illegal
  • Include vitamins, minerals, creatine, glycogen etc
  • Reasons for use: beliefs: eat poorly, will improve performance, advertising claims
  • The industry is not regulated


Vitamins

  • Deficiencies can be avoiding by following a balanced diet and health lifestyle
  • Affects of deficiencies: early fatigue, infections/illness, slow recovery
  • Eg Vitamin C (resistance from disease), Vitamin B (energy releasing)
  • Fat soluble: ADEK (can be toxic), water soluble: B,C
  • Guidelines for use:
    • Consult doctor/dietician if you think they are necessary
    • Don’t consume anything >100% RDI
  • Only use if: ill health, unavailability of balanced diet (eg when travelling)


Minerals

  • Can help: muscle contractions, fluid balance, energy systems
  • Are all available in a balanced diet
  • Eg calcium, iron, potassium, sodium, chlorine
  • Iron and calcium deficiencies are the most common in athletes (esp women)
  • Sports anaemia: general fatigue at the commencement of a heavy training program because iron is being used for energy production and not producing red blood cells


Carbohydrate Loading

  • Traditionally (about 1960’s): exhausting the muscles of glycogen then loading them. By doing exhaustive training the week before. The first 3 days: no glycogen, then load heavily.
  • This almost doubles the body’s capacity to store glycogen
  • Problems: fatigue, loss of motivation
  • Contemporary method:
    • Balanced diet with a carb focus (10g carbs per kg of body weight per day)
    • Tapering of exercise
    • Hydration as glycogen retains water
  • Loading only works in events that are 60-90 minutes + long eg marathon running
  • It won’t increase strength, only prolong the ability to perform
  • High GI: digest rapidly, eg glucose, Low GI: eg pasta, porridge, baked beans


Protein supplementation

  • RDI = 0.8 > 1.2 grams of protein per kg of body weight per day
  • We need 20 amino acids, 10 of these comes from our diet

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