Principles of Training

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Principles of Training

Progressive Overload

Progressive overload: the body will adapt when the training load is above normal and is progressively increased as improvements in fitness occur

  • Training load can increased by increasing: load/intensity/frequency
  • Improvements: cardiac output ^, increased oxygen consumption by muscles applied to strength, flexibility (quickly) and aerobic training


Specificity

  • It is important to train for specific fitness components of that sport or activity and the specific skills required
  • Gains will be made when activity in training resembles what occurs in the game situation
  • Training specific to:
    • Muscle groups
    • Energy systems
    • Fitness components
    • Skills
  • Because the body adapts to stresses in specific (not general) terms
  • Metabolic specificity: identifying and developing the energy systems appropriate to the activity eg marathon runner: targets the aerobic system, the javelin thrower stretches for flex

Reversibility

  • Also called the ”detraining effect„
  • Changes to fitness produced by training reversed if training ceases
  • The ”use it or lose it„ principle„
  • Therefore, 3 sessions per week at 70% MRH must be completed, and alternate exercises must be done when injured
  • Reversing process: aerobic- slowly, strength- less slowly, flex- quickly

Variety

  • It is the gradual increase in load and intensity of training, from easy to difficult
  • Providing activities which will keep athletes fresh, but still using movement patterns and skills of that sport
  • Advantages: motivation, maintaining an aerobic base, avoiding/recovering from injury, assists muscular balance
  • Useful when applying the progressive overload principle, but non-essential


Training Thresholds

  • training threshold: the minimum amount of exercise required to produce an improvement in your fitness
  • 3 factors: heart rate, ventilation, blood lactate levels (lactic acid)
  • Usually explained in terms of MHR cf VO2 Max

Aerobic Threshold

  • Training rate at which baseline lactic acid levels start to rise, heart rate is raised and the body’s ability to use oxygen is improved, conversation is conducted easily
  • 60-70% MHR
  • The lower limit of the training zone

Anaerobic Threshold

  • 85% MHR
  • Will improve anaerobic system and produces lactic acid
  • Near the body’s limit of oxygen, the upper limit of the training zone
  • Trained by short, quick energy bursts
  • Includes: anaerobic glycolysis, more fast twitch muscle fibres, reduced rate of lactic acid removal

Warmup/Cooldown

Warmup

  • the first phase of a training session
  • Purpose:
    • Increased body and muscle temperatures
    • Prevent injury
    • Stimulate cardio system
    • Increase oxygen to muscles
    • Prepare mentally
  • Should Include:
    • Short aerobic activity (to a light sweat)
    • Stretching exercises
    • Calisthenics
    • Skill rehearsal

Cooldown

  • occurs following exercise/vigorous activity
  • Purpose:
    • Reduce stiffness/swelling
    • Reoxygenate the blood
    • Removal of waste products
    • Returns body temp to normal
  • Should Include:
    • Aerobic work and stretching


Application of Training Principles

  • All basic principles apply to the three types
  • Gains in strength: maximised by use of the overload principle

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