Physical Preparation

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Physical Preparation

Skill and Technique

  • Aims: temporal patterning, pace (correct timing), control
  • Correct skill development prevents injury in contact sports, eg not knowing how to tackle in league is dangerous, incorrect running technique can cause fractures

Safe Sporting Movement

  • Safety when learning skills incl equipment (eg gymnastics: soft foam)
  • Modifying movements in certain conditions eg move slowly in wet weather


  • Combination of static and PNF stretching
  • Need to stretch beyond ROM
  • Stretch specific to sport
  • Flex lessens the chance of ligament damage
  • Stretch in warm up and cool down

Endurance (Cardiovascular and Muscular)

  • Aids recovery
  • Fatigued athletes are more susceptible to injury as technique is lost, reaction time slows, muscles tighten, lose mental focus etc


  • Depends on the sport, eg needed in weightlifting + rugby league
  • Muscle imbalance can predispose an athlete to some injuries

Sport Specific Requirements

  • Different components of fitness are required for different sports
  • Preparation should reflect performance levels
  • Special equipment for safety in some sports eg helmets for cycling

Individual Participant's Needs

  • Adjusted according to:
    • The position they play
    • Physical attributes + fitness
    • Somatotype
    • Playing weaknesses
    • Injury/medical conditions

Warm Up/Stretching/Warm Down

  • Most important injury prevention feature
  • Needs to be sport specific (eg explosive events = big warm up, eg sprinting)
  • Warm ups:
    • Redistribute blood flow
    • Raise muscle temperature
    • Positive psychological feelings
    • Include: general body warm up, stretching, callisthenics, skill rehearsal
  • Cool/warm down
    • Disperses lactic acid
    • Avoid muscle shortening
    • Prevent blood pooling
    • 10 minutes
    • Reverse of warm up

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