BikiCrumbs: Motivation

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Motivation: what induces a person to behave in a particular way, an internal state which activates, directs and sustains behaviour towards a goal

Affected by: self-esteem, expectation, standard of competition, spectator support

Positive Motivation

  • Definition: praise/reward/recognition for good performances/technique eg
  • Eg: encouragement
  • Must be continuously enforced

Negative Motivation

  • Performance improves from fear of the consequences
  • Eg threats, ultimatums, dropping players for poor performance
  • Does not work sustainably, long term destruction of confidence and initiative

Intrinsic Motivation

  • From within, as a result of interest/satisfaction/enjoyment
  • The main motivation for children/teenagers
  • Positive reinforcers: occurrences that serve to produce the required response eg trophies
  • Negative reinforcers: taken away from the athlete eg do well = not do 100 push ups

Extrinsic Motivation

• The internal state is modified by external sources eg money, recognition, reward • Yet sustained motivation relies on intrinsic factors


Reinforcement: a form of reward or punishment that influences the probability that an action or behaviour will/ will not re-occur.

There are three types of reinforcements.

  • Social reinforcement- from coaches, players, parents and others. Eg. Talking
  • Material reinforcement- that is tangible. Eg. Medals and trophies
  • Internal reinforcement- from within. Eg. Increasing self confidence

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