Hard Tissue Injuries

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Hard Tissue Injuries


  • Definition: a break in the bone
  • Stress fracture: develop slowly and from overuse
  • Can be from direct/indirect forces or from repetitive smaller impacts (eg stress frac)
  • Simple/closed: skin over the site is intact
  • Compound/open: breaks the skin
  • Complicated: fractured bone damages local tissue eg broken rib > punctured lung
  • Signs/symptoms: pain, loss of function, swelling, deformity, sound of cracking
  • Treatment: immobilise, seek immediate medical assistance


  • Definition: one place is displaced from another
  • Should only be replaced by a medical practitioner
  • Signs/symptoms: deformity/swelling, pain, loss of function
  • Subluxation: pops out and back in
  • Common: shoulder, finger, patella

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